64 Year Old Rifle Design

In 1954 the supreme court ruled that racial school segregation is unconstitutional, Boeing announced that it would make a jet-powered airliner, and a patent lawyer named George Sullivan had an idea to use plastics and lightweight metal alloys rather than wood and steel to make firearms.  He formed a small firearms design company and started working on prototypes to sell these designs to manufactures. While testing a lightweight bolt-action rifle prototype at a local shooting range in Southern California, Sullivan met 33-year-old machinist and inventor Eugene Stoner.  Stoner was hired on the spot to lead design at Armalite and soon afterward the first .30 caliber (7.62 mm) Armalite Rifle model 10 (AR-10) prototype was produced.

There were relatively few orders for the new rifle due in large part to the limited manufacturing capabilities of the new nine-person company.  Just three years later, in 1957, the design was changed to downscale the rifle to a faster but much lighter and less powerful .223 caliber (5.56mm) round at the request of Army General Willard G. Wyman. The AR15 was born but there were still few customers.  The design was sold to Colt in 1959 who continued marketing and started tooling for manufacture. In 1961 Stoner left Armalite to consult for Colt and in 1963 Colt started selling semi-automatic civilian AR15 rifles for $189.50 MSRP.

The Air Force was the first military branch to see advantages of the new lightweight, small caliber rifle. At the end of 1963 the fully automatic military version of the rifle was designated the M16 and entered limited military service with Air Force special operations units who used their own unit funds to procure the rifle.  In 1969 the Army adopted the M16A1 variant to replace most of its much heavier .30 cal. M14 rifles in use at the time.

In 1934 the National Firearms Act put strict limitations on who could own full-auto, military grade firearms and imposed a $200 transfer tax. Then in 1986 the manufacture and import (or modification) of full-auto firearms for civilian use was completely banned. As a result of these laws a pre-1986 full-auto civilian firearm generally costs well more than $20,000 and takes more than six months for government approval to transfer ownership.

Most of the patents on the AR15 expired in the 1970s and hundreds of firearms manufacturers now produce AR type rifles in a multitude of calibers and configurations.  Countless other companies make all manner of accessories for the AR platform. Today an AR will cost you anywhere from $215 to over $5,000, depending on its caliber and configuration, with the most common versions selling for $600 to $1,600. Estimates of the number of civilian-owned AR15 rifles in the United States vary from 5-million to more than 12-million.  Regardless of what estimate is accurate, it is indisputably one of the most popular civilian rifles of all time.  Much of its popularity derives from its flexibility as a rifle platform.

The AR is a modular rifle.  Home defense, competition, precision shooting, plinking, hunting, varmint and predator control, personal protection, you name it… there’s a combination of caliber, optics, sights, grips, bipods, triggers, and other accessories that will allow you to tailor your AR to your exact needs.  It doesn’t matter if you’re a law enforcement officer who has to purchase your own patrol rifle, a homeowner looking for a rifle for the defense of your family from criminals, a hunter harvesting feral hog or deer to put meat on your table, or a disabled person for whom the superior ergonomics and soft recoil of the AR15 just work better, the AR can be adapted to your needs without breaking the bank.  Firearms are not marshmallow launchers. They are useless if they are not effective for their intended purpose. The strength of the AR platform is its adaptability to a multitude of purposes. Today even bolt-action rifles and shotguns often use common AR components to improve their ergonomics and safety. In order to capitalize on newer enhancements made available on the civilian market, the military has largely replaced or updated the M16 in favor of the more adaptable M4 configuration of the fully automatic AR.

The days of the AR’s base design as a mainstay military rifle may be numbered. 

The AR now IS your grandpa’s rifle. The 64-year-old design is showing its age in military service when compared to newer civilian rifles.  This has spurred a number of proposals for reliability upgrades and replacement programs. In 2013 the Army prematurely ended a program to select an outright replacement for the M16/M4 due to complaints from Washington that the military should not be purchasing improved rifles for our troops during a planned force reduction. As a result, once again many special operations units are using their own unit funds to procure non-AR based, full-auto, military versions of some of the newer and more reliable civilian semi-auto firearms on the market. All of them use design elements pioneered by the original AR-10 all those years ago. From the first Army muskets procured in 1775 to today, the military has looked to the civilian firearms market for the next generation of the standard issue military rifle. Today is no different, the new and improved rifles being considered by our armed forces are automatic firing versions of today’s civilian rifle. The term “Military Grade Assault Weapon” was coined to prey on ignorance and sound scary.  It is nothing more than a lie… You can’t buy a modern full-auto “Military Grade” rifle.

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Gun Control Groups are a “One Trick Pony”

All of the gun safety control organizations have something in common.  They only advocate for one form of gun control, abstinence.

Ban private sales (criminals buy guns, they don’t steal them), ban guns in cars (criminals will steal them), ban modern (newer than 1920) (scary assault) rifles, ban concealed carry (secret invisible guns), ban open carry (scary visible guns), ban unregistered (scary ghost) guns, ban long-range (sniper) rifles, ban short-range (cop killer) rifles, ban high-capacity firearms (over 6 rounds), ban inexpensive firearms (Saturday night specials), ban suppressors (assassins), ban large calibers (anti-aircraft canon), ban small calibers (no good for hunting)…  I could do this all day.

Imagine if M.A.D.D. went to congress and told them to ban alcohol (because there are drunk drivers), ban SUVs (because there are drunk drivers), make everyone install a breathalyzer on their car’s ignition (because there are drunk drivers), ban small cars (because there are drunk drivers), ban large cars (because there are drunk drivers), ban pickup trucks (because there are drunk drivers). I could do this all day too.

Instead, M.A.D.D.  said, “let’s focus on the drunk driver”… not the drink, the sober driver, the intoxicated taxi patron, or the vehicle.  People got behind them and they were highly effective at passing common sense laws that save lives without attacking regular drivers, responsible drinkers, or their cars.

The current crop of “Gun Safety” organization has zero interest in promoting actual gun safety or preventing violent crime.  Instead of focusing on the violent criminal or even the criminally reckless recreational shooter, they pretend that non-gun related violence does not exist and focus on ridding the world of the gun and criminalizing responsible gun ownership.

Imagine a Moms group demanding that people with driver’s licenses be prohibited from drinking and demanding that people who drink have their cars taken away.  It’s almost laughable, but this would even make more sense than want the gun control lobby is actually trying to do.  To continue the analogy, these demanding moms are trying to ban each type of booze, ban each type of car, and lock up anyone who owns either.

They have become the proverbial “One Trick Pony” of the public policy world by working to enact a myriad of flavors of gun prohibition rather than working on reducing criminal violence.

If these organizations would focus on reducing the criminal use of violence rather than trying to ban my firearms, ammunition, and right to carry…  I’d help them.  I do a lot of legislative work on reducing the criminal use of violence and educating the public on firearms safety.

Mom’s Demand Action for Gun Control, Everytown for Gun Control, Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, League of Women Voters, etc…  When are you going to help with legislation to stop violent criminals?  Or is it just that you have an irrational aversion to lawful gun ownership and want to ban my guns and make me a criminal for having them?

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Orlando est Charlie

Since 2014 terror attacks outside the Middle-East and North Africa by Islamist extremists have skyrocketed!



United States April 15, 2013 – Boston Marathon bombings. Two brothers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnev, planted two bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The blast killed 3 and injured 183 others.

United Kingdom May 22, 2013 – Two men with cleavers kill British soldier Lee Rigby in Woolwich.

France May 23, 2013 – 2013 La Défense attack. An Islamic extremist wielding a knife attacked and wounded a French soldier in the Paris suburb of La Défense. 1 wounded.
Kenya September 21, 2013 – Westgate shopping mall attack, 67 killed, 175 wounded.

China March 1, 2014 – A group of 8 individuals attacked civilians at Kunming Railway Station, 28 dead, 143 wounded.

China April 30, 2014 – Two assailants attacked passengers and detonated explosives at the Ürümqi railway station, 3 dead, 79 wounded.

Belgium May 24, 2014 – Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting. Gunman opened fire at the Jewish Museum in Brussels killing 4 people.

China July 28, 2014 – Attack in southern Xinjiang left 37 civilians dead and another 13 injured. A gang armed with knives and axes attacked a police station and government offices in Elixku Township, and some moved onto Huangdi Township, attacking civilians and smashing vehicles as they passed.

Australia September 23, 2014 – 2014 Endeavour Hills stabbings. Numan Haider, an
Russia October 5, 2014 – 2014 Grozny bombing. 5 officers and the suicide bomber, were killed, while 12 others were wounded.

Canada October 20, 2014 – 2014 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu ramming attack. Lone attacker used his car to run over two Canadian soldiers. 1 killed, 1 injured

Canada October 22, 2014 – 2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, Ottawa. Lone attacker shot a soldier at a war memorial and attacked Parliament. 1 killed, 3 injured.

United States October 23, 2014 – Zale H. Thomson, also known as Zaim Farouq Abdul-Malik, attacked four New York policemen in the subway with a hatchet, severely injuring one in the back of the head and injuring another policeman in the arm before being shot to death by the remaining officers, who also shot a civilian.

Russia December 4, 2014 – 2014 Grozny clashes. 26 total dead, including 14 policemen, 11 Jihadist from Caucasus Emirate, 1 civilian

Philippines December 9, 2014 – In the 2014 Bukidnon bus bombing 11 people died and 43 were injured.

Australia December 15–16, 2014 – 2014 Sydney hostage crisis. A lone gunman, Man Haron Monis, held hostage ten customers and eight employees of a Lindt chocolate café at Martin Place in Sydney. Police treated the event as a terrorist attack at the time and designated as a terrorist attack by the state government. 3 dead 4 injured.

France December 20, 2014 – 2014 Tours police station stabbing. A man yelling Allahu Akbar attacked a police office with a knife. He was killed and three police officers were injured.

France December 21, 2014 – 2014 Dijon attack. A man yelling Allahu Akbar ran over 11 pedestrians with his vehicle. 11 injured


France January 7–9, 2015 – A series of five attacks, including the Charlie Hebdo attack, in and around Paris kill 17 people, plus three attackers, and leave 22 other people injured.

Denmark February 14–15, 2015 – 2015 Copenhagen shootings. A gunman opened fire at the Krudttoenden café and later at the Great Synagogue in Copenhagen, killing two civilians and injuring five others.

France April 19, 2015 – A 32-year Frenchwoman is murdered by a gunman whose plot to attack a church is foiled shortly after.

Bosnia and Herzegovina April 27, 2015 – At the Zvornik police station terrorist attack in the city of Zvornik, Republika Srpska, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, an armed member of a wahhabist movement opened fire on the police. In the shooting, a police officer was killed, two others were injured, and the attacker was killed by police.

United States May 3, 2015 – Two gunmen attacked the Curtis Culwell Center during a ‘Draw Muhammad’ cartoon art exhibit in Garland, Texas . 2 dead (perpetrators) 1 injured.

France June 26, 2015 – Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack – Beheading in a factory near Lyon, head marked with Arabic writing and Islamist flags. Gas canisters planted provoked a fire. 1 dead, 11 injured.

United States July 16, 2015 – 2015 Chattanooga shootings On July 16, 2015, Muhammad Youssef Abdulazeez opened fire on two military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He first committed a drive-by shooting at a recruiting center, then traveled to a U.S. Navy Reserve center and continued firing, where he was killed by police in a gunfight. Four Marines died on the spot. A Navy sailor, a Marine recruiter, and a police officer were wounded; the sailor died from his injuries two days later.

France August 21, 2015 – 2015 Thalys train attack Shooting and stabbing in train traveling from Amsterdam to Paris injures 5. The incident is believed by French police to be an Islamist terrorist attack.

Germany September 17, 2015 – Rafik Y, an Islamist of Iraqi descent attacked and injured a police officer with a knife in Berlin. 1 injured, 1 dead (perpetrator).

France November 13, 2015 – A series of terrorist attacks in Paris kill 137, and wound 368. They involved a series of coordinated attacks which consisted of mass shootings and suicide bombings. This incident was the most fatal event on French soil since World War II.

Bosnia and Herzegovina November 18, 2015 – A lone wolf Islamist killed two soldiers and injured civilians in Sarajevo. 3 dead 5 wounded.

United States December 2, 2015 – In the 2015 San Bernardino attack, married couple Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik shot and killed 14 people and injured 22 others in a killing spree that the FBI was investigating as “act of terrorism”.

Russia December 29, 2015 – A gunman opened fire on a group of local residents who were visiting a viewing platform at the fortress in Derbent, Dagestan, southern Russia, killing one and injuring 11. ISIL claims responsibility.


France January 7, 2016 – In the January 2016 Paris police station attack an Islamist from Morocco wearing a fake explosive belt attacked police officers with a meat cleaver. He was shot dead.

France January 11, 2016 – A 15-year old Turkish ISIL supporter attacked a teacher from a Jewish school in Marseille with a machete. 1 injured.

Indonesia January 14, 2016 – In the 2016 Jakarta attacks 4 assailants kill 2 and injure 24 in a terrorist attack in Jakarta. The attack was orchestrated and financed from ISIL in Syria.

Belgium March 22, 2016 – 2016 Brussels bombings includes two suicide bombings in Brussels Airport and one bombing in Brussels Metro that resulted in 35 deaths and more than 300 wounded.

United States June 12, 2016 – At least 50 people were killed and 53 injured in a mass shooting at a nightclub in Orlando, Florida. The shooter, Omar Mateen, pledged allegiance to ISIL/ISIS.

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From The Pink Pistols


Pink Pistols Saddened by Attack on Orlando Club

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (Philadelphia, PA) June 12, 2016: Early Sunday, around 2AM Eastern Time, the Pulse nightclub in Orlando was attacked by an armed individual. Approximately 20 persons were killed and over double that wounded when the attacker, whom police have identified as Omar Mateen, a 29-year-old from Fort Pierce, FL, pushed his way into the club and opened fire on patrons. Weapons carried by Mateen are reported as an “assault-type” rifle, a handgun, and a suspected explosive device. UPDATE: Reports are that the death toll is around 50, with over 50 more wounded.

“It appears he was organized and well-prepared,” said Orlando Police Chief John Mina at a news conference on Sunday. Additionally, Orange County Sheriff Jerry Demings said “This is an incident … that we certainly classify as a domestic terror incident.” Authorities say the FBI is involved. Preliminary information reveals that Omar Mateen’s family is from Afghanistan, though Omar may have been born in the United States. His family is reported to be distraught at the actions and loss of their son.

Gwendolyn Patton, First Speaker of the Pink Pistols, an international GLBT self-defense organization, warns people not to jump immediately to the assailant’s guns as the object of blame, but to concentrate instead on Mateen’s violent acts. “The Pink Pistols gives condolences to all family and friends of those killed and injured at Pulse,” began Patton. “This is exactly the kind of heinous act that justifies our existence. At such a time of tragedy, let us not reach for the low-hanging fruit of blaming the killer’s guns. Let us stay focused on the fact that someone hated gay people so much they were ready to kill or injure so many. A human being did this. The human being’s tools are unimportant when compared to the bleakness of that person’s soul. I say again, GUNS did not do this. A human being did this, a dead human being. Our job now is not to demonize the man’s tools, but to condemn his acts and work to prevent such acts in the future.”

Patton’s concerns are that knee-jerk gun-control efforts may make preventing future events harder rather than easier, as only the law-abiding potential victims will be affected by such laws. “It is difficult, if not impossible, to foresee such an event,” continues Patton, “But if they cannot be prevented, then they must be stopped as fast as someone tries to start them.”

Some bars and other establishments that serve alcohol are difficult to protect because many states forbid the carrying of weapons where alcohol is served, but that just as one might have a designated driver who stays sober, one might have a designated carrier with a concealed-carry permit who goes armed and does not drink. “It’s sad that we must consider such things, but when there are persons out there who mean us harm, we must find ways to protect ourselves within the law.” Patton concludes.

The Pink Pistols is an international organization dedicated to the legal, safe, and responsible use of firearms for self-defense of the sexual-minority community. Chapters may be found across the United States and Canada. Though the Pink Pistols is for the GLBTQ community, it is not solely composed of the GLBTQ community, and all are welcome to join.

Gwendolyn S. Patton
First Speaker, Pink Pistols International
Ph: (610) 879-2364


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Like we said – Tampa Crossed the line



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Funding Justice


We’re raising the money necessary to file a lawsuit – That does it – Tampa, you crossed the line.

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That does it – Tampa, you crossed the line.

Since 2010 Florida Carry members have been going fishing and lawfully open carrying in Florida. There has NEVER been a real problem until now.

Last weekend one of our members was detained for over an hour and had a trespass notice issued to him for an entire year from a public fishing area. His alleged indiscretion was that he is a gun owner, he was NOT breaking any law.

When officers of the Tampa Police Department realized that they could not arrest a member of Florida Carry, who has a carry license, for lawfully carrying an unconcealed firearm while fishing, after physically battering him, the Tampa PD trespassed him from the public park for one year.

This is the same park that we have often used as a venue for our MONTHLY Open Carry Fishing Events since 2010 and with the full knowledge of the City of Tampa.

This is no more justifiable than trespassing a hunter for carrying a gun while lawfully hunting on public lands would be.  In fact, it is less justifiable because the abuse of our member was done in retaliation for his exercise of free speech, the right of assembly, the right of association, and the right to bear arms.

This demands action, LAWSUIT TO FOLLOW…

Posted in Guns, The Hay Hoe Files | 18 Comments

1911’s are like suits

1911’s are like suits.  For some, an off the rack Sears special will fit fine and serve you well.  Others will settle for nothing less than a hand crafted specimen from the finest Savile Row tailor.  Most of us buy our suits and firearms from reputable sources that provide us with well fitted, reliable and practical products at a fair price. 

Posted in Guns | 2 Comments

Dwight D. Eisenhower on Obama’s vision for America…

“If you want total security, go to prison. There you’re fed, clothed, given medical care and so on. The only thing lacking… is freedom.” – Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Hundreds Of Sexual Predators Live Minutes From Florida College Campuses, Student Safety At Risk » Shark Tank

Hundreds Of Sexual Predators Live Minutes From Florida College Campuses, Student Safety At Risk » Shark Tank.

The grassroots and membership-driven pro-gun organization, Florida Carry, has been sticking its trigger finger into the eyes of the anti-gun lobby at every turn…

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Why I won’t buy a Springfield XD Mod.2


As I’ve said many times… “Aesthetics come in a distant third to function and reliability.”  But aesthetics are still a factor!

What’s next?



What would I buy???



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Suncoast Gun Shows snubs Florida Carry, Inc. | Gun Free Zone

Suncoast Gun Shows snubs Florida Carry, Inc. | Gun Free Zone.

Three other gun show promoters are now giving us free tables – Right out front where everyone will see us!


Suncoast has reversed course and is now offering us table space.

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KRG Bolt Lift SV – Simple Brilliant Design

Today the postman did not disappoint!  Nestled away in a tiny tin box was my new Kinetic Research Group (KRG) Bolt Lift SV.

The stock bolt knob on the Remington 700 leaves a lot to be desired.  It’s a bit small and thin for the simple job that it is supposed to do.  You’ll see no shortage of “Tactical” bolt knob replacement services that charge about $100 for you to send them your bolt for a week or two, plus shipping time, to remedy this.  Those services grind down the stock knob, thread the handle shaft, and screw on a replacement knob that usually looks like it came from the little ball chain hanging from Grandma’s ceiling fan.

There’s really nothing wrong with those replacements, when done properly, but the down time and costs just weren’t justifiable to me when KRG offers this little dandy for $35 – shipped.


Installation is a non-event.  It comes with two pairs of o-rings in two sizes to use as spacers.  For mine, I used one thick and one thin o-ring.  The Bolt Lift SV simply mates two halves together with a hex head screw to compression fit on the bolt. One o-ring and half on top of the stock bolt handle, one of each on the bottom.  It’s solid!  I added a drop of blue loctite to the screw just for some insurance and to satisfy my OCD.  There are instructions for epoxy setting it to your bolt but that really isn’t necessary and would make it essentially irreversible.


In contrast to the original Bolt Lift, the SV (small version) is… well…  slightly smaller. More importantly it has a stipple textured top and bottom surface instead of the ribbed/fluted finish of its predecessor. The new texture is a welcome upgrade.  Aesthetics come in a distant third to function and reliability, and the Bolt Lift SV delivers on all fronts.

Palming the stock bolt knob upward was sometimes less than positive.  I’d sometimes skip off the edge of it.  Occasionally this would cause me to instinctively put my thumb on top of the knob and proceed to smash my delicate little thumb in to my scope.  This was about as fun as smashing your thumb can be.

With the Bolt Lift attached, there’s no missing or slipping yet it remains unobtrusive.  There is still plenty of clearance for the Nightforce NXS scope even with the Butler Creek flip-open covers and my sometimes ham-fisted bolt operation.


KRG’s polymer is obviously made of win and the Bolt Lift SV is even infantry proof tough and well designed enough for this ageing grunt to love.

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Why Campus Carry? – Over 130 convicted sexual offenders and predators live in walking distance of FSU.

Why Campus Carry?  Because our campuses are surrounded by convicted sexual predators.

Over 130 Sexual Predators and Offenders live within walking distance of FSU.

Over 130 Sexual Predators and Offenders live within walking distance of FSU.

UF Sex Offenders

UF Sex Offenders

UCF Sex Offenders

UCF Sex Offenders

FAMU Sex Offenders

FAMU Sex Offenders

This no means NO.

This no means NO.

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Michael Moore, Rolling Stone, MSNBC, etc… We get it, you hate American Soldiers and Vets.

Dakota Meyer Blasts Moore’s Coward Remarks – Sniper’s Hide – Scout.

A sniper’s primary goal is to eliminate ground threats for U.S. guys on the ground. Is that what a coward is? A person whose goal is to save the lives of his warrior brothers?
– Medal of Honor Recipient, Dakota Meyer

My message is more succinct.

– Infantry Vet., Sean Caranna

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Dr. Gary Kleck on Florida’s Campus Carry Bill

Major Points About Gun Carrying on Campus

Dr. Gary Kleck

1. Defensive carrying of firearms in the general noncriminal U.S. population is extremely common. One national survey estimated that over 16.8 million American adults carried a gun outside their home for self-protection at some time during 1992, that the average carrier carries a gun about every other day, and that there were over a billion instances of gun carrying that year (where one person carrying on one day counts as one “instance”) (Kleck and Gertz 1998).

2. Less than 1 in a 1,000 instances of gun carrying, whether by carry permit holders or by others, are done for the purpose of committing a violent crime with the gun. That is, over 99.9% of gun carrying is done for purposes of self-defense (Kleck and Gertz 1998, p. 210).

3. Criminal gun violence among persons with licenses authorizing them to carry guns in public places is virtually nonexistent. Data from Florida covering 24 years when the state’s “shall-issue” carry law was in operation indicate that the state issued 2,047,928 concealed weapon licenses between October 1, 1987 (when the new “shall issue” carry law went into effect) and August 31, 2011, and that there were 853,272 active licenses as August 31, 2011. Yet, over this entire period, the state revoked a grand total of just 168 carry licenses due to licensees committing a crime in which a firearm was utilized – an average of just seven gun crime convictions per year (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2011), in a state in which there 113,641 violent crimes known to the police in 2009 (U.S. FBI 2010). Even if there were five gun crimes actually committed by permit holders for every one that resulted in a criminal conviction and permit revocation, it would still be safe to say that less than 1/100th of 1% of Florida carry permit holders committed a violent gun crime. Further, I am not aware that any of these instances of permit holder gun violence occurred on a college campus.

These figures imply that carry permit holders probably committed no more than 1/100th of one percent of the violent crimes in Florida. Indeed, the rate of criminal violence is far lower among carry permit holders than in the rest of the population. In sum, there is no empirical support for the concern that allowing Florida carry permit holders to carry guns on college campuses would cause a significant increase in gun violence on campus, since violent gun crime is virtually nonexistent among permit holders.

4. Defensive gun uses (DGUs) linked with gun carrying are extremely common.
For example, in 1992, there were an estimated 2.5 million total DGUs, 63% of which occurred in locations other than the victim’s home, implying that there were c. 1.6 million DGUs that required carrying a gun outside the crime victim’s home in order for the defensive use to occur.

Since crime rates today are only about half what they were in 1992, a reasonable estimate of annual DGUs in the U.S. involving gun carrying outside the home for 2015 would be a little over 1 million once adjusted for population growth.

On the other hand, the number of valid carry permit holders in Florida increased from 74,259 at the end of fiscal year 1992 to 1,290,362 (Florida 2015). This could tend to increase DGUs in Florida linked with gun carrying. I cannot say what the net effect of declining crime rates combined with increasing carry permit rates would be.

5. Defensive gun use by crime victims is effective in preventing victim injury or property loss, and is more effective in preventing serious injury than any other method of self-protection, including nonresistance (Kleck 1988; Kleck and DeLone 1993; Tark and Kleck 2004). Likewise, rape attempts are less likely to be completed when victims use weapons for self-protection (Kleck and Sayles 1990). Thus, denying gun possession to persons victimized in public places would increase the rate of injury and property loss among the victims affected. I am not aware of any evidence or logical reason to believe that defensive use of guns is any less effective if they happen to occur on a college campus than at other locations.

6. In sum, there is sound reason to expect that defensive benefits to crime victims would result from licensed gun carriers being allowed to carry guns on college campuses, and no empirical foundation for expecting that this would result in any nonnegligible number of permit holders committing violent crimes with their guns.


Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2011. “Concealed Weapon or Firearm License Summary Report, October 1, 1987 – August 31, 2011.” Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of State, Division of Licensing.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2015. “Number of Valid Florida Concealed Weapon Licenses as Reported at the End of Each Fiscal Year (June 30) Since Program Inception in October 1987.” Available online at http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/7504/118881/NumberOfValidCWLicenses_FiscalYearEndSince1987-1988.pdf.

Kleck, Gary. 1988. “Crime control through the private use of armed force.” Social Problems 35(1):1-21.

Kleck, Gary, and Susan Sayles. 1990. “Rape and resistance.” Social Problems 37(2):149-162.

Kleck, Gary, and Miriam DeLone. 1993. “Victim resistance and offender weapon effects in robbery.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9(1):55-82.

Kleck, Gary, and Marc Gertz. 1995. “Armed resistance to crime: the prevalence and nature of self-defense with a gun.” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 86(1):150-187.

Kleck, Gary, and Marc Gertz. 1998. “Carrying guns for protection: results from the National Self-Defense Survey.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35(2):193-224.

Tark, Jongyeon, and Gary Kleck 2004. “Resisting crime: the effects of victim action on the outcomes of crimes.” Criminology 42(4):861-909.

U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. Crime in the United States – Uniform Crime Reports 2009. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Dr. Gary Kleck

David J. Bordua Professor of Criminology – Florida State University

Gary Kleck, College of Criminology.

In 1993, Dr. Kleck won the Michael J. Hindelang Award from the American Society of Criminology for his book Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America (Aldine de Gruyter, 1991). He has testified before Congress and state legislatures on gun control proposals. His research was cited in the Supreme Court’s landmark District of Columbia v. Heller decision, which struck down the D.C. handgun ban and held that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to keep and bear arms.

Dr. Kleck’s recent research has found that higher general gun ownership rates reduce homicide rates, probably because the violence-reducing effects of guns among non-criminal victims and prospective victims outweigh the violence-increasing effects of guns among criminals. Other research found that adding more officers to a city’s police force will not produce increased deterrence of crime.  Another recent study found that victims who resist rape attempts, including those who resist forcibly, are more likely to avoid completion of the rape and no more likely to suffer additional injuries than victims who do not resist.

Jongyeon Tark, Gary Kleck. 2014. “Resisting Rape: The Effects of Victim Self-Protection on Rape Completion and Injury” Violence Against Women.
Gary Kleck, James C. Barnes. 2014. “Do More Police Generate More Crime Deterrence?” Crime and Delinquency.
Gary Kleck. 2013. “An Overview of Gun Control Policy in the United States” The Criminal Justice System (10th Edition).
Tomislav Kovandzic, Mark E. Schaffer, Gary Kleck. 2013. “Estimating the Causal Effect of Gun Prevalence on Homicide Rates: A Local Average Treatment Effect Approach” Journal of Quantitative Criminology.
Gary Kleck. 2013. “Deterrence: Actual vs. Perceived Risk of Punishment” Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Kleck, Gary, Brion Sever, Spencer Li, and Marc Gertz. 2005. “The Missing Link in General Deterrence Research.” Criminology 43(3):623-659.
Kleck, Gary and Jongyeon Tark. 2005. “Resisting Crime: The Effects of Victim Action on the Outcomes of Crimes.” Criminology 42(4):861-909.
Kleck, Gary. 1997. Targeting Guns: Firearms and their Control. Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gryter,
Kleck, Gary and Marc Gertz. 1995. “Armed Resistance to Crime: the Prevalence and Nature of Self-defense with a Gun.” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 86(1):150-187.
Kleck, Gary. 1991. Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America. Hawthorne, N.Y.:Aldine de Gruyter. Winner of the Michael J. Hindelang Award of the American Society of Criminology.


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Every time you call something “Tactical” without cause, an Infantryman wants to choke you.

Why is it that so much gear is called “Tactical” now?  It’s idiotic!

In the military, at least in the combat arms disciplines, we always strived to achieve, better, and maintain our technical and tactical proficiency.

  1. of, relating to, or constituting actions carefully planned to gain a specific military end.
  2. (of a person or their actions) showing adroit planning; aiming at an end beyond the immediate action.
  1. of or relating to a particular subject, art, or craft, or its techniques.
  2. of, involving, or concerned with applied and industrial sciences.

Technical skills are things like knowing the proper operation of your rifle, how to emplace a mine, using a bayonet, throwing a hand grenade, physically breaching a door, using a radio, calling for artillery fire, etc…

Tactical skills encompass planning, improvisation, and decision-making.  Where technical skills could be described as encompassing the science of doing something, tactical skills are truly the art of it.

Many tactical skills are taught by somewhat formulaic methods. For example; things like planning a linear ambush, movement to contact, actions on contact, clearing a building, etc… all have a number of methods that are taught and developed so that they can be properly employed given the actual situation you are faced with. We take into account factors such as METT-T (Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, – Time), in the decision making process (see” OODA Loop) used to determine the tactics to be utilized in accomplishing a mission or task.

Tactical skills are all plans and techniques.  The don’t usually describe “things”.

There are some valid exceptions where clarification is needed and the word “Tactical” is used in a name solely for disambiguation purposes.

The Tactical Nuclear Weapon comes to mind.  These are nuclear devices designed to have a low yield and to be used on the authority of a local commander to achieve a tactical advantage or end.  They are not called “tactical” to make them sound cooler (it’s a nuke, how much cooler could it be?). The “Tactical Nuke” is called that solely to distinguish it from the far better known “Strategic Nuclear Weapon”.  Then you have things like Tactical Radios, this again is to distinguish these little, man portable, low powered, military radios from their bigger megawatt cousins installed in the communications centers of higher commands.

This seem to be where everyone is getting hung up.  The want to distinguish their rifle from grandpa’s hunting rifle (even if both are .308 caliber Remington 700’s), their pocketknife from their other pocketknife, their wristwatch from…  MAKE it STOP!

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ATF Firearm Classifications Made Easy!


Posted in Guns | 3 Comments

Calling “gun control” “gun safety” is like calling Forced Castration a “family planning” initiative.

As the gun ban lobby scrambles to re-brand themselves as being something other than the “gun control” groups that they are, the term “gun safety” has been swapped in to play.  Obviously calling the anti-Second Amendment groups “gun safety advocates” sounds far less confrontational and oppressive.  After all, I’m a huge “gun safety advocate”.  I teach people to safely carry and use firearms all the time.

I can’t find any “gun safety” training that these organizations conduct, but I can find where they lobby for bans on the carry, possession, transportation, purchase, transfer, and civil ownership of guns.

It’s all bullshit, folks and it’s bad for ya.’ — George Carlin


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Florida Carry Giveaway H&K VP9, a Florida Carry Custom EDC Kit, and Training.

Florida Carry New Gear for a New Year Giveaway
Ready for some new gear for your new year?

Win a H&K VP9, a Florida Carry Custom EDC Kit, and Training.


Included in the EDC Kit:

  • H&K VP9 Striker fired pistol w/ factory night sights and 3 standard capacity (15 round) mags.
  • FourSevens Quark Pro QPLC Flashlight.
  • Panther Concealment Holster.
  • SOG Trident Elite assisted opening knife.
  • Certificate for a One Day Introduction to Defensive Pistol Course from South Florida Gun School.

This new H&K VP9, EDC kit, and Defensive Pistol Training could be yours!

Just register as a Florida Carry Member at: https://www.floridacarry.org/join
or just sign up for our email alerts on the same page.

No purchase or donation is necessary. (However, we do appreciate your membership or donation to support Florida Carry’s gun rights work.)
All current members and registered supporters as of April 1st, 2015 will be entered to win.

When you win, you’ll just have to pay whatever fees your local Federally Licensed Firearms Dealer (or FFL) charges to lawfully transfer the firearm to you. ($25 to $30 at most Florida FFLs.) Rules and details at: https://www.floridacarry.org/flcinews/111-win-a-h-k-vp9-and-full-edc-kit

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